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[ANN][ANDROID MINING][AIRDROP] NewEnglandcoin: Scrypt RandomSpike

New England
New England 6 States Songs: https://www.reddit.com/newengland/comments/er8wxd/new_england_6_states_songs/
NewEnglandcoin
Symbol: NENG
NewEnglandcoin is a clone of Bitcoin using scrypt as a proof-of-work algorithm with enhanced features to protect against 51% attack and decentralize on mining to allow diversified mining rigs across CPUs, GPUs, ASICs and Android phones.
Mining Algorithm: Scrypt with RandomSpike. RandomSpike is 3rd generation of Dynamic Difficulty (DynDiff) algorithm on top of scrypt.
1 minute block targets base difficulty reset: every 1440 blocks subsidy halves in 2.1m blocks (~ 2 to 4 years) 84,000,000,000 total maximum NENG 20000 NENG per block Pre-mine: 1% - reserved for dev fund ICO: None RPCPort: 6376 Port: 6377
NewEnglandcoin has dogecoin like supply at 84 billion maximum NENG. This huge supply insures that NENG is suitable for retail transactions and daily use. The inflation schedule of NengEnglandcoin is actually identical to that of Litecoin. Bitcoin and Litecoin are already proven to be great long term store of value. The Litecoin-like NENG inflation schedule will make NewEnglandcoin ideal for long term investment appreciation as the supply is limited and capped at a fixed number
Bitcoin Fork - Suitable for Home Hobbyists
NewEnglandcoin core wallet continues to maintain version tag of "Satoshi v0.8.7.5" because NewEnglandcoin is very much an exact clone of bitcoin plus some mining feature changes with DynDiff algorithm. NewEnglandcoin is very suitable as lite version of bitcoin for educational purpose on desktop mining, full node running and bitcoin programming using bitcoin-json APIs.
The NewEnglandcoin (NENG) mining algorithm original upgrade ideas were mainly designed for decentralization of mining rigs on scrypt, which is same algo as litecoin/dogecoin. The way it is going now is that NENG is very suitable for bitcoin/litecoin/dogecoin hobbyists who can not , will not spend huge money to run noisy ASIC/GPU mining equipments, but still want to mine NENG at home with quiet simple CPU/GPU or with a cheap ASIC like FutureBit Moonlander 2 USB or Apollo pod on solo mining setup to obtain very decent profitable results. NENG allows bitcoin litecoin hobbyists to experience full node running, solo mining, CPU/GPU/ASIC for a fun experience at home at cheap cost without breaking bank on equipment or electricity.
MIT Free Course - 23 lectures about Bitcoin, Blockchain and Finance (Fall,2018)
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLUl4u3cNGP63UUkfL0onkxF6MYgVa04Fn
CPU Minable Coin Because of dynamic difficulty algorithm on top of scrypt, NewEnglandcoin is CPU Minable. Users can easily set up full node for mining at Home PC or Mac using our dedicated cheetah software.
Research on the first forked 50 blocks on v1.2.0 core confirmed that ASIC/GPU miners mined 66% of 50 blocks, CPU miners mined the remaining 34%.
NENG v1.4.0 release enabled CPU mining inside android phones.
Youtube Video Tutorial
How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sdOoPvAjzlE How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nHnRJvJRzZg
How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in macOS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zj7NLMeNSOQ
Decentralization and Community Driven NewEnglandcoin is a decentralized coin just like bitcoin. There is no boss on NewEnglandcoin. Nobody nor the dev owns NENG.
We know a coin is worth nothing if there is no backing from community. Therefore, we as dev do not intend to make decision on this coin solely by ourselves. It is our expectation that NewEnglandcoin community will make majority of decisions on direction of this coin from now on. We as dev merely view our-self as coin creater and technical support of this coin while providing NENG a permanent home at ShorelineCrypto Exchange.
Twitter Airdrop
Follow NENG twitter and receive 100,000 NENG on Twitter Airdrop to up to 1000 winners
Graphic Redesign Bounty
Top one award: 90.9 million NENG Top 10 Winners: 500,000 NENG / person Event Timing: March 25, 2019 - Present Event Address: NewEnglandcoin DISCORD at: https://discord.gg/UPeBwgs
Please complete above Twitter Bounty requirement first. Then follow Below Steps to qualify for the Bounty: (1) Required: submit your own designed NENG logo picture in gif, png jpg or any other common graphic file format into DISCORD "bounty-submission" board (2) Optional: submit a second graphic for logo or any other marketing purposes into "bounty-submission" board. (3) Complete below form.
Please limit your submission to no more than two total. Delete any wrongly submitted or undesired graphics in the board. Contact DISCORD u/honglu69#5911 or u/krypton#6139 if you have any issues.
Twitter Airdrop/Graphic Redesign bounty sign up: https://goo.gl/forms/L0vcwmVi8c76cR7m1
Milestones
Roadmap
NENG v1.4.0 Android Mining, randomSpike Evaluation https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/NENG_2020_Q3_report/NENG_2020_Q3_report.pdf
RandomSpike - NENG core v1.3.0 Hardfork Upgrade Proposal https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/2020Q1_Report/Scrypt_RandomSpike_NENGv1.3.0_Hardfork_Proposal.pdf
NENG Security, Decentralization & Valuation
https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/2019Q2_report/NENG_Security_Decentralization_Value.pdf
Whitepaper v1.0 https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/download/whitepaper_v1.0/NENG_WhitePaper.pdf
DISCORD https://discord.gg/UPeBwgs
Explorer
http://www.findblocks.com/exploreNENG http://86.100.49.209/exploreNENG http://nengexplorer.mooo.com:3001/
Step by step guide on how to setup an explorer: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/nengexplorer
Github https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin
Wallet
Android with UserLand App (arm64/armhf), Chromebook (x64/arm64/armhf): https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0.5
Linux Wallet (Ubuntu/Linux Mint, Debian/MX Linux, Arch/Manjaro, Fedora, openSUSE): https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0.3
MacOS Wallet (10.11 El Capitan or higher): https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0.2
Android with GNUroot on 32 bits old Phones (alpha release) wallet: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.4.0
Windows wallet: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/NewEnglandCoin/releases/tag/v1.3.0.1
addnode ip address for the wallet to sync faster, frequently updated conf file: https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/cheetah_cpumineblob/mastenewenglandcoin.conf-example
How to Sync Full Node Desktop Wallet https://www.reddit.com/NewEnglandCoin/comments/er6f0q/how_to_sync_full_node_desktop_wallet/
TWITTER https://twitter.com/newenglandcoin
REDDIT https://www.reddit.com/NewEnglandCoin/
Cheetah CPU Miner Software https://github.com/ShorelineCrypto/cheetah_cpuminer
Solo Mining with GPU or ASIC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg52187727#msg52187727
How to Run Two Full Node in Same Desktop PC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53581449#msg53581449
ASIC/GPU Mining Pools Warning to Big ASIC Miners Due to DynDiff Algo on top of Scrypt, solo mining is recommended for ASIC/GPU miners. Further more, even for mining pools, small mining pool will generate better performance than big NENG mining pool because of new algo v1.2.x post hard fork.
The set up configuration of NENG for scrypt pool mining is same as a typical normal scrypt coin. In other word, DynDiff on Scrypt algo is backward compatible with Scrypt algo. Because ASIC/GPU miners rely on CPU miners for smooth blockchain movement, checkout bottom of "Latest News" section for A WARNING to All ASIC miners before you decide to dump big ASIC hash rate into NENG mining.
(1) Original DynDiff Warning: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48324708#msg48324708 (2) New Warning on RandomSpike Spike difficulty (244k) introduced in RandomSpike served as roadblocks to instant mining and provide security against 51% attack risk. However, this spike difficulty like a roadblock that makes big ASIC mining less profitable. In case of spike block to be mined, the spike difficulty immediately serve as base difficulty, which will block GPU/ASIC miners effectively and leave CPU cheetah solo miners dominating mining almost 100% until next base difficulty reset.
FindBlocks http://findblocks.com/
CRpool http://crpool.xyz/
Cminors' Pool http://newenglandcoin.cminors-pool.com/
SPOOL https://spools.online/
Exchange
📷
https://shorelinecrypto.com/
Features: anonymous sign up and trading. No restriction or limit on deposit or withdraw.
The trading pairs available: NewEnglandcoin (NENG) / Dogecoin (DOGE)
Trading commission: A round trip trading will incur 0.10% trading fees in average. Fees are paid only on buyer side. buy fee: 0.2% / sell fee: 0% Deposit fees: free for all coins Withdraw fees: ZERO per withdraw. Mining fees are appointed by each coin blockchain. To cover the blockchain mining fees, there is minimum balance per coin per account: * Dogecoin 2 DOGE * NewEnglandcoin 1 NENG
Latest News Aug 30, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.5 Released for Android/Chromebook Upgrade with armhf, better hardware support https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg55098029#msg55098029
Aug 11, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.4 Released for Android arm64 Upgrade / Chromebook Support https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54977437#msg54977437
Jul 30, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.3 Released for Linux Wallet Upgrade with 8 Distros https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54898540#msg54898540
Jul 21, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.2 Released for MacOS Upgrade with Catalina https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54839522#msg54839522
Jul 19, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0.1 Released for MacOS Wallet Upgrade https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54830333#msg54830333
Jul 15, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0 Released for Android Mining, Ubuntu 20.04 support https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54803639#msg54803639
Jul 11, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0 Android Mining, randomSpike Evaluation https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54777222#msg54777222
Jun 27, 2020 - Pre-Announce: NENG v1.4.0 Proposal for Mobile Miner Upgrade, Android Mining Start in July 2020 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54694233#msg54694233
Jun 19, 2020 - Best Practice for Futurebit Moonlander2 USB ASIC on solo mining mode https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54645726#msg54645726
Mar 15, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG v1.3.0.1 Released for better wallet syncing https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg54030923#msg54030923
Feb 23, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG Core v1.3.0 Relased, Hardfork on Mar 1 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53900926#msg53900926
Feb 1, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike Proposal Published- NENG 1.3.0 Hardfork https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53735458#msg53735458
Jan 15, 2020 - NewEnglandcoin Dev Team Expanded with New Kickoff https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg53617358#msg53617358
Jan 12, 2020 - Explanation of Base Diff Reset and Effect of Supply https://www.reddit.com/NewEnglandCoin/comments/envmo1/explanation_of_base_diff_reset_and_effect_of/
Dec 19, 2019 - Shoreline_tradingbot version 1.0 is released https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5121953.msg53391184#msg53391184
Sept 1, 2019 - NewEnglandcoin (NENG) is Selected as Shoreline Tradingbot First Supported Coin https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg52331201#msg52331201
Aug 15, 2019 - Mining Update on Effect of Base Difficulty Reset, GPU vs ASIC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg52169572#msg52169572
Jul 7, 2019 - CPU Mining on macOS Mojave is supported under latest Cheetah_Cpuminer Release https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg51745839#msg51745839
Jun 1, 2019 - NENG Fiat project is stopped by Square, Inc https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg51312291#msg51312291
Apr 21, 2019 - NENG Fiat Project is Launched by ShorelineCrypto https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50714764#msg50714764
Apr 7, 2019 - Announcement of Fiat Project for all U.S. Residents & Mobile Miner Project Initiation https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50506585#msg50506585
Apr 1, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50417196#msg50417196
Mar 27, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50332097#msg50332097
Mar 17, 2019 - Disclosure on Large Buying on NENG at ShorelineCrypto Exchange https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg50208194#msg50208194
Feb 26, 2019 - Community Project - NewEnglandcoin Graphic Redesign Bounty Initiated https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49931305#msg49931305
Feb 22, 2019 - Dev Policy on Checkpoints on NewEnglandcoin https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49875242#msg49875242
Feb 20, 2019 - NewEnglandCoin v1.2.1 Released to Secure the Hard Kork https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49831059#msg49831059
Feb 11, 2019 - NewEnglandCoin v1.2.0 Released, Anti-51% Attack, Anti-instant Mining after Hard Fork https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49685389#msg49685389
Jan 13, 2019 - Cheetah_CpuMiner added support for CPU Mining on Mac https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49218760#msg49218760
Jan 12, 2019 - NENG Core v1.1.2 Released to support MacOS OSX Wallet https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49202088#msg49202088
Jan 2, 2019 - Cheetah_Cpuminer v1.1.0 is released for both Linux and Windows https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg49004345#msg49004345
Dec 31, 2018 - Technical Whitepaper is Released https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48990334#msg48990334
Dec 28, 2018 - Cheetah_Cpuminer v1.0.0 is released for Linux https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48935135#msg48935135
Update on Dec 14, 2018 - NENG Blockchain Stuck Issue https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48668375#msg48668375
Nov 27, 2018 - Exclusive for PC CPU Miners - How to Steal a Block from ASIC Miners https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48258465#msg48258465
Nov 28, 2018 - How to CPU Mine a NENG block with window/linux PC https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48298311#msg48298311
Nov 29, 2018 - A Warning to ASIC Miners https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5027091.msg48324708#msg48324708
Disclosure: Dev Team Came from ShorelineCrypto, a US based Informatics Service Business offering Fee for service for Coin Creation, Coin Exchange Listing, Blockchain Consulting, etc.
submitted by honglu69 to NewEnglandCoin [link] [comments]

[SHARE] Fulfilled Textbook Request Megathread #4

Download any of these for free at https://oppfiles.com/585933
DM me if you have any requests for anything not on the list.
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Please subscribe the sub to find all the latest textbook releases.
Enjoy!
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Daly(self) 1 [BOOK] 99 Tips for Creating Simple and Sustainable Educational Videos(self) 6 [Book] Taylor, Christopher 2018 Empire of Neglect: The West Indies in the Wake of British Liberalism. Duke University Press.(self)NSFW 1 [Book] The emporium of the world : maritime Quanzhou1000-1400 , by Angela Schottenhammer, Leiden : Brill, 2001(self) 2 [Article] PRRT in high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (WHO G3)(self) 1 [Book] The art of strict musical composition, by Johann Philipp Kirnberger, tr. David Beach and Jurgen Thym(self) 1 [Book] (request) Primate Evolution and Human Origins By Russell L. Ciochon & Fleagle(self) 10 [Book] (T&F) Sikhs in Asia Pacific by Swarn Singh Kahlon(self) 4 [Book] (T&F) Nation-state and Minority Rights in India by Tanweer Fazal(self) 5 [Book] The Path of Genocide: The Rwanda Crisis from Uganda to Zaire - Astri Suhrke(self) 2 [Article] Intergenerational social mobility and religious ecology: Disaggregating the conservative Protestant bloc(self) 3 [Book] ASTM E2847 - 14; Standard Test Method for Calibration and Accuracy Verification of Wideband Infrared Thermometers(self) 1 [Article] Country Life issue 86, from October 1939(self) 1 [Book] Understanding the Dairy Cow by John Webster(self) 4 [Article] The Struggle over Structural Adjustment: Socialist Revolution versus Capitalist Counterrevolution in Yugoslavia and the World by Johanna Bockman(self) 4 [Book] Shadowland : from Jeffrey Epstein to the Clintons, from Obama and Biden to the occult elite, exposing the deep-state actors at war with Christianity, Donald Trump, and America's destiny(self) 1 [Book] Refugee conversations by Bertold Brecht(self) 1 [Article] (requested) Alan Crozier, Beyond the Metaphor: Cursing and Swearing in Ulster, in MALEDICTA X, at 115, 122 (1988-89)(self) 3 [Book] A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd Edition(self) 4 [Article] God as a White man: A psychological barrier to conceptualizing Black people and women as leadership worthy.(self) 1 [Book]The Truth about Mormonism: Illumination or Deception?(self) 3 [Book] Shorebird Ecology, Conservation, and Management(self) 10 [Chapter] De Anima et Resurrectione(self) 2 [BOOK] A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd Edition(self) 5 [BOOK] 'Rulers, townsmen and bazaars : North Indian society in the age of British expansion, 1770-1870' by CA Bayly(self) 1 [Book] Middleton's Allergy 2-Volume Set 9th Edition by A Wesley Burks Stephen Holgate Robyn O'Hehir Leonard Bacharier David Broide Gurjit Khurana Hershey R. 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Elise Keith(self) 1 [book][request] Work Smarter: Live Better: Practical Ways to Change Your Work Habits and Transform Your Life by Cyril Peupion(self) 2 [book][request] Bits, Bytes, and Barrels: The Digital Transformation of Oil and Gas by Geoffrey Cann(self) 6 [Article] Tax Revenues and the Fiscal Cost of Trade Liberalization, 1792-2006(self) 4 [Book] (T&F) Writing Diaspora South Asian Women, Culture and Ethnicity by Yasmin Hussain(self) 4 [Article] [HeinOnline] Request(self) 4 [Book] - The Routledge International Handbook of Forensic Intelligence and Criminology(self) 2 4 [Book] Optional Processes Theory and Applications, by Mohamed Abdelghani, Alexander Melnikov(self) 4 [BOOK] Tehrangeles Dreaming: Intimacy and Imagination in Southern California's Iranian Pop Music - Farzaneh Hemmasi(self) 4 [Book] (T&F) Sikh Religion, Culture and Ethnicity by Arvind-Pal S. 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An anthology of articles on disk recording from the pages of the Journal of the Audio engineering society Vol. 1-Vol. 28 (1953-1980). 1(self) 1 [Book] Cityscapes of Modernity: Critical Explorations by David Frisby(self) 1 [Book] Art and the Senses | Edited by Francesca Bacci and David Melcher(self) 1 [eBook] Mastering A&P with Pearson eText(self) 1 [Book] Emotionen: Eine Einführung für beratende, therapeutische, pädagogische und soziale Berufe(self) 3 [article] Conceptualizing Behavior Disorders in Terms of Resistance to Intervention(self) 1 [ARTICLE] 'Hegel, Hinduism, and Freedom', Merold Westphal, The Owl of Minerva, Volume 20, Issue 2, Spring 1989, Pages 193-204(self) 1 [Book] Machine Learning in Chemistry(self) 1 [Book] Youth and media(self) 7 1 [Article] The Beneficial Effect of Physical Exercise on Inflammatory Makers in Older Individuals Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2020 Jun 6. 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C. (1986). A standardized machine-readable phonetic notation. In Conference Publication No. 258. International Conference on Speech Input / Output; Techniques and Applications, 24–26 March 1986. London: Institute of Electrical Engineers, 134–137.(self) 4 [Book] (BRILL) Indian Diaspora: Voices of the Diasporic Elders in Five Countries(self) 1 [BOOK] 'Hegel, freedom, and modernity' by Merold Westphal, 1992(self) 1 [Supplement] Panza MJ, Graupensperger S, Agans JP, Doré I, Vella SA, Evans MB. Adolescent sport participation and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of sport and exercise psychology. 2020 May 21;42(3):201-18.(self) 2 [Article] Cooley at al. (2019). Complex intersections of race and class: Among social liberals, learning about White privilege reduces sympathy, increases blame, and decreases external attributions for White people struggling with poverty(self) 4 [Book] [Brill] Resolving Conflicts in the Law : Essays in Honour of Lea Brilmayer(self) 1 [Book] Master Medicine: General and Systematic Pathology 3rd Edition(self) 4 [book] Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century - A Global History by Ira M. 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ERA - Edinburgh(self) 3 [Article] belated: interruption(self) 4 [Article] Reusable and Recyclable Graphene Masks with Outstanding Superhydrophobic and Photothermal Performances(self) 8 [Article] Randomized Algorithms in Number Theory(self) 4 [Book] The Routledge Companion to Digital Humanities and Art History(self) 5 [Article] Regulatory cell therapy in kidney transplantation (The ONE Study): a harmonised design and analysis of seven non-randomised, single-arm, phase 1/2A trials by Sawitzki et al.(self) 0 1 [Book] Asian Freedoms: The Idea of Freedom in East and Southeast Asia (Cambridge), eds. David Kelly & Anthony Reid(self) 2 [Article] Local Mitochondrial ATP Production Regulates Endothelial Fatty Acid Uptake and Transport, by A. Ibrahim N. Yucel B. Kim Z. Arany(self) 4 [Chapter] Modeling Liquid–Liquid Extraction for Critical Elements Separations: An overview, (Chukwunwike O. Iloeje, 2020).(self) 6 [Article] Electrical stimulation in white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) production, by I. Roshita, K. M. P. Nurfazira, C. Shi Fern, and M. S. Nur Ain(self) 1 [Book] Screen Adaptation: Impure Cinema by Deborah Cartmell and Imelda Whelehan(self) 4 [Book] Earth’s Insights (Callicott 1997)(self) 1 [Book] Viscosity of Pure Organic Liquids and Binary Liquid Mixtures 2017(self) 2 [BOOK] Needed: A comprehensive etymological dictionary of the Hebrew language for readers of English(self) 1 [Book] Hydrothermal chemistry of zeolites(self) 5 [Chapter] 2 chapters from A History of the United States Author: Philip Jenkins 3. Expansion and Crisis, 1825–65 6. Expansion and Crisis, 1825–65(self) 4 [Chapter] 8. The Fall of Actually Existing Socialism Authors: Prof. Geoffrey Swain, Dr. Nigel Swain(self) 5 [article] Sci-Hub didn't work for this article so I hope someone could help me !(self) 4 [Book] Evil Men, James Dawes(self) 1 [Chapter] from the book The Versailles Settlement Peacemaking after the First World War, 1919-1923 by Alan Sharp chapter 2. The Paris Peace Conference chapter 3. The League of Nations(self) 2 [Book] Macroeconomics(self) 1 [Article] "Eleutherna, the Orthi Petra Necropolis: Slewn by the Iron" by Nicholas Chr. 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Green Left Weekly 1257, 2020.(self) 1 [BOOK]A comprehensive etymological dictionary of the Hebrew language for readers of English(self) 1 [Article] Sound Levels in Nursing Homes by Laura L. Joosse(self) 1 [Book] China Upside Down: Currency, Society, and Ideologies, 1808–1856 by Man-houng Lin(self) 3 [Book] The SAGE Handbook of Propaganda (2019)(self) 1 [BOOK] 'Lacan and Religion', by Aron Dunlap, Routledge, 2016(self) 2 [Book] Making It in the Market: Richard Ney's Low-Risk System for Stock Market Investors(self) 1 [Book] Comprendre les langues romanes(self) 1 [book] Derecho romano clásico, Betancourt(self) 6 [Book] The Oxford Handbook of Information Structure (2016)(self) 1 [book] pls help me find Physiotherapy in mental health and psychiatry(self) 4 [Article] Denationalization by Sir John Fischer Williams(self) 1 [BOOK] Statistical Methods for the Social and Behavioural Sciences - A Model-Based Approach (David B. Flora)(self) 1 [ARTICLE] Care as a Political Concept by Joan C. 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The Strange Birth & History of Monero, Part IV: Monero "as it is now"

You can read here part III.
You can read this whole story translated into Spanish here
This is part IV, the last but not least.
Monero - A secure, private, untreceable cryptocurrency
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.0
Notable comments in this thread:
-201: “I would like to offer 1000 MRO to the first person who creates a pool”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6422665#msg6422665)
[tacotime offers bounty to potential pool developer. Bytecoin devs haven’t released any code for pools, and the only existent pool, minergate (in the future related to BCN interests) was closed source]
-256: “Adam back seems to like CryptoNote the better than Zerocash https://twitter.com/adam3us/status/453493394472697856”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6440769#msg6440769)
-264: “update on pools: The NOMP guy (zone117x) is looking to fork his open source software and get a pool going, so one should hopefully be up soon.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6441302#msg6441302)
-273: “Update on GUI: othe from VertCoin has notified me that he is working on it.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6442606#msg6442606)
-356: “Everyone wanting a pool, please help raise a bounty with me here:
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=589533.0
And for the GUI:
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=589561.0”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6461533#msg6461533)
[5439 MRO + 0.685 BTC + 5728555.555 BCN raised for pool and 1652 XMR, 121345.46695471 BCN for the GUI wallet. Though this wallet was "rejected" as official GUI because wallet still has to be polished before building a GUI]
-437: “Yes, most Windows users should see a higher hashrate with the new build. You can thank NoodleDoodle. ”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6481202#msg6481202)
-446: “Even faster Windows binaries have just been uploaded. Install for more hash power! Once again, it was NoodleDoodle.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6483680#msg6483680)
-448: “that almost doubled my hashrate again! GREAT STUFF !!!”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6484109#msg6484109)
-461: “Noodle only started optimization today so there may be gains for your CPU in the future.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6485247#msg6485247)
[First day of miner optimization by NoodleDoodle, it is only May 1st]
-706: “The unstoppable NoodleDoodle has optimized the Windows build again. Hashrate should more than double. Windows is now faster than Linux. :O”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6549444#msg6549444)
-753: “i here tft is no longer part of the project. so is he forking or relaunching bytecoin under new name and new parameters (merged mining with flatter emission curve.) also. what is the end consensus for the emission curve for monero. will it be adjusted."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6561345#msg6561345)
[May, 5th 2014. TFT is launching FANTOMCOIN, a clone coin which its "only" feature was merged mining]
-761: (https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6561941#msg6561941) [May, 5th 2014 – eizh on emission curve and tail emission]
-791: “As promised, I did Russian translation of main topic.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6565521#msg6565521)
[one among dozens of decentralized and “altruist” collaborators of Monero in minor tasks]
-827: image
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6571652#msg6571652)
-853: (https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6575033#msg6575033)
[some are not happy that NoodleDoodle had only released the built binaries, but not the source code]
-950: (https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6593768#msg6593768)
[Rias, an account suspected to be related to the Bytecoin scam, dares to tag Monero as “instamine”]
-957: “It's rather bizarre that you're calling this an "instamine" scam when you're so fervently supporting BCN, which was mined 80% before entering the clearnet. Difficulty adjustments are per block, so there is no possibility of an instamine unless you don't publish your blockchain (emission is regular at the preset interval, and scales adequately with the network hash rate). What you're accusing monero of is exactly what ByteCoin did.”
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6594025#msg6594025
[Discussion with rias drags on for SEVERAL posts]
-1016: “There is no "dev team". There is a community of people working on various aspects of the coin.
I've been keeping the repo up to date. NoodleDoodle likes to optimise his miner. TFT started the fork and also assists when things break. othe's been working on a GUI. zone117x has been working on a pool.
It's a decentralized effort to maintain the fork, not a strawman team of leet hackers who dwell in the underbellies of the internet and conspire for instamines.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6596828#msg6596828)
-1023: “Like I stated in IRC, I am not part of the "dev team", I never was. Just so happens I took a look at the code and changed some extremely easy to spot "errors". I then decided to release the binary because I thought MRO would benefit from it. I made this decision individually and nobody else should be culpable”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6597057#msg6597057)
[Noodledoodle gets rid of the instaminer accusations]
-1029: “I decided to relaunch Monero so it will suit all your wishes that you had: flatter emission curve, open source optimized miner for everybody from the start, no MM with BCN/BMR and the name. New Monero will be ready tomorrow”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6597252#msg6597252)
[people trying to capitalize mistakes is always there.]
-1030: "Pull request has been submitted and merged to update miner speed
It appears from the simplicity of the fix that there may have been deliberate crippling of the hashing algorithm from introduction with ByteCoin."
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6597460#msg6597460
[tacotime “officially” raises suspects of possible voluntarily crippled miner]
-1053: "I don't mind the 'relaunch' or the merge-mining fork or any other new coin at all. It's inevitable that the CryptoNote progresses like scrypt into a giant mess of coins. It's not undesirable or 'wrong'. Clones fighting out among themselves is actually beneficial for Monero. Although one of them is clearly unserious and trolling by choosing the same name.
Anyway, this sudden solidarity with BCN or TFT sure is strange when none of these accounts were around for the discussions that took place 3 weeks ago. Such vested interests with no prior indications. Hmm...? "
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6599013#msg6599013
[eizh points out the apparent organized fudding]
-1061: "There was no takeover. The original developer (who himself did a fork of bytecoin and around a dozen lines of code changes) was non-responsive and had disappeared. The original name had been cybersquatted all over the place (since the original developer did not even register any domain name much less create a web site), making it impossible to even create a suitably named web site. A bunch of us who didn't want to see the coin die who represented a huge share of the hash power and ownership of the coin decided to adopt it. We reached out to the original developer to participate in this community effort and he still didn't respond over 24 hours, so we decided to act to save the coin from neglect and actively work toward building the coin."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6599798#msg6599798)
[smooth defends legitimacy of current “dev team” and decisions taken]
-1074: “Zerocash will be announced soon (May 18 in Oakland? but open source may not be ready then?).
Here is a synopsis of the tradeoffs compared to CyptoNote: […]"
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6602891#msg6602891)
[comparison among Zerocash y Cryptonote]
-1083: "Altcoin history shows that except in the case of premine (Tenebrix), the first implementation stays the largest by a wide margin. We're repeating that here by outpacing Bytecoin (thanks to its 80% mine prior to surfacing). No other CN coin has anywhere near the hashrate or trading volume. Go check diff in Fantom for example or the lack of activity in BCN trading.
The only CN coin out there doing something valuable is HoneyPenny, and they're open source too. If HP develops something useful, MRO can incorporate it as well. Open source gives confidence. No need for any further edge."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6603452#msg6603452)
[eizh reminds everyone the “first mover” advantage is a real advantage]
-1132: "I decided to tidy up bitmonero GitHub rep tonight, so now there is all valuable things from latest BCN commits & Win32. Faster hash from quazarcoin is also there. So BMR rep is the freshest one.
I'm working on another good feature now, so stay tuned."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6619738#msg6619738)
[first TFT apparition in weeks, he somehow pretends to still be the "lead dev"]
-1139: "This is not the github or website used by Monero. This github is outdated even with these updates. Only trust binaries from the first post."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6619971#msg6619971)
[eizh tries to clarify the community, after tft interference, which are the official downloads]
-1140: “The faster hash is from NoodleDoodle and is already submitted to the moner-project github (https://github.com/monero-project/bitmonero) and included in the binaries here.
[trying to bring TFT back on board] It would be all easier if you just work together with the other guys, whats the problem? Come to irc and talk like everyone else?
[on future monero exchangers] I got confirmation from one."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6619997#msg6619997)
[8th may 2014, othe announces NoodleDoodle optimized miner is now open source, asks TFT to collaborate and communicates an exchanger is coming]
-1146: "I'll be impressed if they [BCN/TFT shills] manage to come up with an account registered before January, but then again they could buy those.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6620257#msg6620257)
[smooth]
-1150: “Ring signatures mean that when you sign a transaction to spend an output (coins), no one looking at the block chain can tell whether you signed it or one of the other outputs you choose to mix in with yours. With a mixing factor of 5 or 10 after several transactions there are millions of possible coins all mixed together. You get "anonymity" and mixing without having to use a third party mixer.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6620433#msg6620433)
[smooth answering to “what are ring signatures” in layman terms]
-1170: "Someone (C++ skilled) did private optimized miner a few days ago, he got 74H/s for i5 haswell. He pointed that mining code was very un-optimized and he did essential improvements for yourself. So, high H/S is possible yet. Can the dev's core review code for that?"
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6623136#msg6623136)
[forums are talking about an individual or group of individuals with optimized miners - may 9th 2014]
-1230: "Good progress on the pool reported by NOMP dev zone117x. Stay tuned, everyone.
And remember to email your favorite exchanges about adding MRO."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6640190#msg6640190)
-1258: "This is actually as confusing to us as you. At one point, thankful_for_today said he was okay with name change: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=563821.msg6368600#msg6368600
Then he disappeared for more than a week after the merge mining vote failed.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6645981#msg6645981)
[eizh on the TFT-issue]
-1358: “Jadehorse: registered on 2014-03-06 and two pages of one line posts:
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=263597
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=263597;sa=showPosts
Trustnobody: registered on 2014-03-06 and two pages of one line posts:
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=264292
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=264292;sa=showPosts
You guys should really just stop trying. It is quite transparent what you are doing. Or if you want to do it, do it somewhere else. Everyone else: ignore them please."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6666844#msg6666844)
[FUD campaign still ongoing, smooth battles it]
-1387: "The world’s first exchange for Monero just opened! cryptonote.exchange.to"
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6675902#msg6675902)
[David Latapie announces an important milestone: exchanger is here]
-1467: "image"
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6686125#msg6686125)
[it is weird, but tft appears again, apparently as if he were in a parallel reality]
-1495: “http://monero.cc/blog/monero-price-0-002-passed/”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6691706#msg6691706)
[“trading” milestone reached: monero surpassed for first time 0.002 btc price]
-1513: "There is one and only one coin, formerly called Bitmonero, now called Monero. There was a community vote in favor (despite likely ballot stuffing against). All of the major stakeholders at the time agreed with the rename, including TFT.
The code base is still called bitmonero. There is no reason to rename it, though we certainly could have if we really wanted to.
TFT said he he is sentimental about the Bitmonero name, which I can understand, so I don't think there is any malice or harm in him continuing to use it. He just posted the nice hash rate chart on here using the old name. Obviously he understands that they are one and the same coin."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6693615#msg6693615)
[Smooth clears up again the relation with TFT and BMR. Every time he appears it seems to generate confusion on newbies]
-1543: "Pool software is in testing now. You can follow the progress on the pool bounty thread (see original post on this thread for link)."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6698097#msg6698097)
-1545: "[on the tail emission debate] I've been trying to raise awareness of this issue. The typical response seems to be, "when Bitcoin addresses the problem, so will we." To me this means it will never be addressed. The obvious solution is to perpetually increase the money supply, always rewarding miners with new coins.
Tacotime mentioned a hard fork proposal to never let the block reward drop below 1 coin:
Code: if (blockReward < 1){ blockReward = 1; }
I assume this is merely delaying the problem, however. I proposed a fixed annual debasement (say 2%) with a tx fee cap of like 0.001% of the current block reward (or whatever sounds reasonable). That way we still get the spam protection without worrying about fee escalation down the road."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6698879#msg6698879)
[Johnny Mnemonic wants to debate tail emission. Debate is moved to the “Monero Economy” thread]
-1603: “My GOD,the wallet is very very wierd and too complicated to operate, Why dont release a wallet-qt as Bitcoin?”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6707857#msg6707857)
[Newbies have hard times with monero]
-1605: "because this coin is not a bitcoin clone and so there isnt a wallet-qt to just copy and release. There is a bounty for a GUI wallet and there is already an experimental windows wallet..."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6708250#msg6708250)
-1611: "I like this about Monero, but it seems it was written by cryptographers, not programmers. The damned thing doesn't even compile on Arch, and there are several bugs, like command history not working on Linux. The crypto ideas are top-notch, but the implementation is not."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6709002#msg6709002)
[Wolf0, a miner developer, little by little joining the community]
-1888: "http://198.199.79.100 (aka moneropool.org) successfully submitted a block. Miners will be paid for their work once payments start working.
P.S. This is actually our second block today. The first was orphaned. :/"
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6753836#msg6753836)
[May 16th: first pool block]
-1927: "Botnets aren't problem now. The main problem is a private hi-performance miner"
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6759622#msg6759622)
-1927: "Evidence?"
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6759661#msg6759661)
[smooth about the private optimized miner]
-1937: “[reference needed: smooth battling the weak evidence of optimized miner] Yes, I remember that. Some person on the Internet saying that some other unnamed person said he did something hardly constitutes evidence.
I'm not even doubting that optimized asm code could make a big difference. Just not sure how to know whether this is real or not. Rumors and FUD are rampant, so it is just hard to tell."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6760040#msg6760040)
[smooth does not take the "proof" seriously]
-1949: "image
One i5 and One e5 connected to local pool:
image"
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6760624#msg6760624)
[proof of optimized miner]
-1953: "lazybear are you interested in a bounty to release the source code (maybe cleaned up a bit?) your optimized miner? If not, I'll probably play around with the code myself tomorrow and see if I can come up with something, or maybe Noodle Doodle will take an interest."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6760699#msg6760699)
[smooth tries to bring lazybear and his optimized miner on board]
-1957: "smooth, NoodleDoodle just said on IRC his latest optimizations are 4x faster on Windows. Untested on Linux so far but he'll push the source to the git repo soon. We'll be at 1 million network hashrate pretty soon."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6760814#msg6760814)
[eizh makes publics NoodleDoodle also has more miner optimizations ready]
-1985: “Someone (not me) created a Monero block explorer and announced it yesterday in a separate thread:
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=611561.0”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6766206#msg6766206)
[May 16th, 2014: a functional block explorer]
-2018: “Noodle is doing some final tests on Windows and will begin testing on Linux. He expects hashrate should increase across all architectures. I can confirm a 5x increase on an i7 quad-core + Windows 7 64-bit.
Please be patient. These are actual changes to the program, not just a switch that gets flicked on. It needs testing.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6770093#msg6770093)
[eizh has more info on last miner optimization]
-2023: “Monero marketcap is around $300,000 as of now”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6770365#msg6770365)
-2059: I was skeptical of this conspiracy theory at first but after thinking about the numbers and looking back at the code again, I'm starting to believe it.
These are not deep optimizations, just cleaning up the code to work as intended.
At 100 H/s, with 500k iterations, 70 cycles per L3 memory access, we're now at 3.5 GHz which is reasonably close. So the algorithm is finally memory-bound, as it was originally intended to be. But as delivered by the bytecode developers not even close.
I know this is going to sound like tooting our own horn but this is another example of the kind of dirty tricks you can expect from the 80% premine crowd and the good work being done in the name of the community by the Monero developers.
Assuming they had the reasonable, and not deoptimized, implementation of the algorithm as designed all along (which is likely), the alleged "two year history" of bytecoin was mined on 4-8 PCs. It's really one of the shadiest and sleaziest premines scams yet, though this shouldn't be surprising because in every type of scam, the scams always get sneakier and more deceptive over time (the simple ones no longer work)."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6773168#msg6773168)
[smooth blowing the lid: if miner was so de-optimized, then BCN adoption was even lower than initially thought]
-2123: (https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6781481#msg6781481)
[fluffypony first public post in Monero threads]
-2131: "moneropool.org is up to 2KHs, (average of 26Hs per user). But that's still only 0.3% of the reported network rate of 575Khs.
So either a large botnet is mining, or someone's sitting quietly on a much more efficient miner and raking in MRO."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6782192#msg6782192)
[with pools users start to notice that “avg” users account for a very small % of the network hashrate, either botnets or a super-optimized miner is mining monero]
-2137: “I figure its either:
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6782852#msg6782852)
-2192: “New source (0.8.8.1) is up with optimizations in the hashing. Hashrate should go up ~4x or so, but may have CPU architecture dependence. Windows binaries are up as well for both 64-bit and 32-bit."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6788812#msg6788812)
[eizh makes official announce of last miner optimization, it is may 17th]
-2219: (https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6792038#msg6792038)
[wolf0 is part of the monero community for a while, discussing several topics as botnet mining and miner optimizations. Now spots security flaws in the just launched pools]
-2301: "5x optimized miner released, network hashrate decreases by 10% Make your own conclusions. :|"
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6806946#msg6806946)
-2323: "Monero is on Poloniex https://poloniex.com/exchange/btc_mro"
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6808548#msg6808548)
-2747: "Monero is holding a $500 logo contest on 99designs.com now: https://99designs.com/logo-design/contests/monero-mro-cryptocurrency-logo-design-contest-382486"
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6829109#msg6829109)
-2756: “So... ALL Pools have 50KH/s COMBINED.
Yet, network hash is 20x more. Am i the only one who thinks that some people are insta mining with prepared faster miners?”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6829977#msg6829977)
-2757: “Pools aren't stable yet. They are more inefficient than solo mining at the moment. They were just released. 10x optimizations have already been released since launch, I doubt there is much more optimization left.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6830012#msg6830012)
-2765: “Penalty for too large block size is disastrous in the long run.
Once MRO value increases a lot, block penalties will become more critical of an issue. Pools will fix this issue by placing a limit on number and size of transactions. Transaction fees will go up, because the pools will naturally accept the most profitable transactions. It will become very expensive to send with more than 0 mixin. Anonymity benefits of ring signatures are lost, and the currency becomes unusable for normal transactions.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6830475#msg6830475)
-2773: "The CryptoNote developers didn't want blocks getting very large without genuine need for it because it permits a malicious attack. So miners out of self-interest would deliberately restrict the size, forcing the network to operate at the edge of the penalty-free size limit but not exceed it. The maximum block size is a moving average so over time it would grow to accommodate organic volume increase and the issue goes away. This system is most broken when volume suddenly spikes."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6830710#msg6830710)
-3035: "We've contributed a massive amount to the infrastructure of the coin so far, enough to get recognition from cryptonote, including optimizing their hashing algorithm by an order of magnitude, creating open source pool software, and pushing several commits correcting issues with the coin that eventually were merged into the ByteCoin master. We also assisted some exchange operators in helping to support the coin.
To say that has no value is a bit silly... We've been working alongside the ByteCoin devs to improve both coins substantially."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6845545#msg6845545)
[tacotime defends the Monero team and community of accusations of just “ripping-off” others hard-work and “steal” their project]
-3044: "image"
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6845986#msg6845986)
[Monero added to coinmarketcap may 21st 2014]
-3059: "You have no idea how influential you have been to the success of this coin. You are a great ambassador for MRO and one of the reasons why I chose to mine MRO during the early days (and I still do, but alas no soup for about 5 days now)."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6846509#msg6846509)
[random user thanks smooth CONSTANT presence, and collaboration. It is not all FUD ;)]
-3068: "You are a little too caught up in the mindset of altcoin marketing wars about "unique features" and "the team" behind the latest pump and dump scam.
In fact this coin is really little more than BCN without the premine. "The team" is anyone who contributes code, which includes anyone contributing code to the BCN repository, because that will get merged as well (and vice-versa).
Focus on the technology (by all accounts amazing) and the fact that it was launched in a clean way without 80% of the total world supply of the coin getting hidden away "somewhere." That is the unique proposition here. There also happens to be a very good team behind the coin, but anyone trying too hard to market on the basis of some "special" features, team, or developer is selling you something. Hold on to your wallet."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6846638#msg6846638)
[An answer to those trolls saying Monero has no innovation/unique feature]
-3070: "Personally I found it refreshing that Monero took off WITHOUT a logo or a gui wallet, it means the team wasn't hyping a slick marketing package and is concentrating on the coin/note itself."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6846676#msg6846676)
-3119: “image
[included for the lulz]
-3101: "[…]The main developers are tacotime, smooth, NoodleDoodle. Some needs are being contracted out, including zone117x, LucasJones, and archit for the pool, another person for a Qt GUI, and another person independently looking at the code for bugs."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6848006#msg6848006)
[the initial "core team" so far, eizh post]
-3123: (https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6850085#msg6850085)
[fluffy steps-in with an interesting dense post. Don’t dare to skip it, worthwhile reading]
-3127: (https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6850526#msg6850526)
[fluffy again, worth to read it too, so follow link, don’t be lazy]
-3194: "Hi guys - thanks to lots of hard work we have added AES-NI support to the slow_hash function. If you're using an AES-NI processor you should see a speed-up of about 30%.”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6857197#msg6857197)
[flufflypony is now pretty active in the xmr topic and announces a new optimization to the crippled miner]
-3202: "Whether using pools or not, this coin has a lot of orphaned blocks. When the original fork was done, several of us advised against 60 second blocks, but the warnings were not heeded.
I'm hopeful we can eventually make a change to more sane 2- or 2.5-minute blocks which should drastically reduce orphans, but that will require a hard fork, so not that easy."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6857796#msg6857796)
[smooth takes the opportunity to remember the need of bigger target block]
-3227: “Okay, optimized miner seems to be working: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=619373”
[wolf0 makes public his open source optimized miner]
-3235: "Smooth, I agree block time needs to go back to 2 minutes or higher. I think this and other changes discussed (https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=597878.msg6701490#msg6701490) should be rolled into a single hard fork and bundled with a beautiful GUI wallet and mining tools."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6861193#msg6861193)
[tail emission, block target and block size are discussed in the next few messages among smooth, johnny and others. If you want to know further about their opinions/reasonings go and read it]
-3268: (https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6862693#msg6862693)
[fluffy dares another user to bet 5 btc that in one year monero will be over dash in market cap. A bet that he would have lost as you can see here https://coinmarketcap.com/historical/20150524/ even excluding the 2M “instamined” coins]
-3283: "Most of the previous "CPU only" coins are really scams and the developers already have GPU miner or know how to write one. There are a very few exceptions, almost certainly including this one.
I don't expect a really dominant GPU miner any time soon, maybe ever. GPUs are just computers though, so it is certainly possible to mine this on a GPU, and there probably will be a some GPU miner, but won't be so much faster as to put small scale CPU miners out of business (probably -- absent some unknown algorithmic flaw).
Everyone focuses on botnets because it has been so long since regular users were able to effectively mine a coin (due to every coin rapidly going high end GPU and ASIC) that the idea that "users" could vastly outnumber "miners" (botnet or otherwise) isn't even on the radar.
The vision here is a wallet that asks you when you want to install: "Do you want to devote some of you CPU power to help secure the network. You will be eligible to receive free coins as a reward (recommended) [check box]." Get millions of users doing that and it will drive down the value of mining to where neither botnets nor professional/industrial miners will bother, and Satoshi's original vision of a true p2p currency will be realized.
That's what cryptonote wants to accomplish with this whole "egalitarian mining" concept. Whether it succeeds I don't know but we should give it a chance. Those cryptonote guys seem pretty smart. They've probably thought this through better than any of us have."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6863720#msg6863720)
[smooth vision of a true p2p currency]
-3318: "I have a screen shot that was PMed to me by someone who paid a lot of money for a lot of servers to mine this coin. He won't be outed by me ever but he does in fact exist. Truth."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6865061#msg6865061)
[smooth somehow implies it is not botnets but an individual or a group of them renting huge cloud instances]
-3442: "I'm happy to report we've successfully cracked Darkcoin's network with our new quantum computers that just arrived from BFL, a mere two weeks after we ordered them."
[fluffy-troll]
-3481: “Their slogan is, "Orphaned Blocks, Bloated Blockchain, that's how we do""
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6878244#msg6878244)
[Major FUD troll in the topic. One of the hardest I’ve ever seen]
-3571: "Tacotime wanted the thread name and OP to use the word privacy instead of anonymity, but I made the change for marketing reasons. Other coins do use the word anonymous improperly, so we too have to play the marketing game. Most users will not bother looking at details to see which actually has more privacy; they'll assume anonymity > privacy. In a world with finite population, there's no such thing as anonymity. You're always "1 of N" possible participants.
Zero knowledge gives N -> everyone using the currency, ring signatures give N -> your choice, and CoinJoin gives N -> people who happen to be spending around the same amount of money as you at around the same time. This is actually the critical weakness of CoinJoin: the anonymity set is small and it's fairly susceptible to blockchain analysis. Its main advantage is that you can stick to Bitcoin without hard forking.
Another calculated marketing decision: I made most of the OP about ring signatures. In reality, stealth addressing (i.e. one-time public keys) already provides you with 90% of the privacy you need. Ring signatures are more of a trump card that cannot be broken. But Bitcoin already has manual stealth addressing so the distinguishing technological factor in CryptoNote is the use of ring signatures.
This is why I think having a coin based on CoinJoin is silly: Bitcoin already has some privacy if you care enough. A separate currency needs to go way beyond mediocre privacy improvements and provide true indistinguishably. This is true thanks to ring signatures: you can never break the 1/N probability of guessing correctly. There's no additional circumstantial evidence like with CoinJoin (save for IP addresses, but that's a problem independent of cryptocurrencies)."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6883525#msg6883525)
[Anonymity discussions, specially comparing Monero with Darkcoin and its coinjoin-based solution, keep going on]
-3593: "Transaction fees should be a fixed percentage of the block reward, or at the very least not be controllable by the payer. If payers can optionally pay more then it opens the door for miner discrimination and tx fee bidding wars."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6886770#msg6886770)
[Johnny Mnemonic is a firm defender of fixed fees and tail emission: he see the “fee market” as big danger to the usability of cryptocurrencies]
-3986: (https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6930412#msg6930412)
[partnership with i2p]
-4373: “Way, way faster version of cpuminer: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=619373”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg6993812#msg6993812)
[super-optimized miner is finally leaked to the public. Now the hashrate is 100 times bigger than originally with crippled miner. The next hedge for "cloud farmers" is GPU mining]
-4877: “1. We have a logo! If you use Monero in any of your projects, you can grab a branding pack here. You can also see it in all its glory right here:
logo […] 4. In order to maintain ISO 4217 compliance, we are changing our ticker symbol from MRO to XMR effective immediately."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg7098497#msg7098497)
[Jun 2nd 2014]
-5079: “First GPU miner: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=638915.0”
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg7130160#msg7130160)
[4th June: Claymore has developed the first CryptoNight open source and publicly available GPU miner]
-5454: "New update to my miner - up to 25% hash increase. Comment and tell me how much of an increase you got from it: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=632724"
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg7198061#msg7198061)
[miner optimization is an endless task]
-5464: "I have posted a proposal for fixed subsidy:
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=597878.msg7202538#msg7202538"
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg7202776#msg7202776)
[Nice charts and discussion proposed by tacotime, worth reading it]
-5658: "- New seed nodes added. - Electrum-style deterministic wallets have been added to help in the recovery of your wallet should you ever need to. It is enabled by default."
(https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg7234475#msg7234475)
[Now you can recover your wallet with a 24 word seed]
-5726: (https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg7240623#msg7240623)
[Bitcoin Pizza in monero version: a 2500 XMR picture sale (today worth ~$20k)]
-6905: (https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg7386715#msg7386715)
[Monero missives: CryptoNote peer review starts whitepaper reviewed)]
-7328: (https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=583449.msg7438333#msg7438333)
[android monero widget built]
This is a dense digest of the first several thousand messages on the definitive Monero thread.
A lot of things happened in this stressful days and most are recorded here. It can be summarized in this:
  • 28th April: Othe and zone117x assume the GUI wallet and CN pools tasks.
  • 30th April: First NoodleDoodle's miner optimization.
  • 11th May: First Monero exchanger
  • 13th May: Open source pool code is ready.
  • 16th May: First pool mined block.
  • 19th May: Monero in poloniex
  • 20th May: Monero +1100 bitcoin 24h trading volume in Poloniex.
  • 21st May: New official miner optimization x4 speed (accumulated optimization x12-x16). Open source wolf0's CPU miner released.
  • 25th May: partnership with i2p
  • 28th May: The legendary super-optimized miner is leaked. Currently running x90 original speed. Hedge of the "cloud farmers" is over in the cpu mining.
  • 2nd June: Monero at last has a logo. Ticker symbol changes to the definitive XMR (former MRO)
  • 4th June: Claymore's open source GPU miner.
  • 10th June: Monero's "10,000 bitcoin pizza" (2500 XMR paintig). Deterministic seed-based wallets (recover wallet with a 24 word seed)
  • March 2015 – tail emission added to code
  • March 2016 – monero hard forks to 2 min block and doubles block reward
There basically two things in here that can be used to attack Monero:
  • Crippled miner Gave unfair advantage to those brave enough to risk money and time to optimize and mine Monero.
  • Fast curve emission non-bitcoin-like curve as initially advertised and as it was widely accepted as suitable
Though we have to say two things to support current Monero community and devs:
  • The crippled miner was coded either by Bytecoin or CryptoNote, and 100% solved within a month by Monero community
  • The fast curve emission was a TFT miscalculation. He forgot to consider that as he was halving the block target he was unintentionally doubling the emission rate.
submitted by el_hispano to Monero [link] [comments]

State Capitalism

The text below is an exchange had between Sire_26 and the BSA chat group about State Capitalism. This record exists for the sake of education and does not necessarily reflect the positions of BSA as a whole.
Please feel free to leave your thoughts in the comments below.
Sire_26: Lenin [identified as] an orthodox Marxist, so he felt that the USSR needed to be in a holding pattern until a revolution took place in Germany or another more developed country; the thing is, Russia never left that holding pattern until the collapse of the USSR.
Anon #1: yeah
Sire_26: When “capitalism” as we understand it took full control. Trotsky predicted this would happen.
Anon #1: now russia is just as capitalist as anywhere else, and considerably smaller.
Sire_26: Mikhail Bakunin is the real ☕️, tho. PLEASE read him.
Anon #2: What are your thoughts on Luxemburgism?
Sire_26: The only “ism” and “ist” labels you should be entertaining is “Marxist” and various forms of “Socialist” lol everything else is dogma.
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Luxemburg is super important, and everyone should read her works on “reform” and the role that it should play. But she should be someone we’re studying just like everyone else (including Lenin, Mao, Trotsky... they all have thoughts to contribute to this conversation).
We have to stay true to the science (dialectics), though.
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Anon #3: Wait are we saying that Soviet Russia was capitalist?
Anon #2: It was lol It had capitalistic aspects at some points but they definitely tried socialism. At least in my research.
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Anon #3: I think that’s a bit intellectually dishonest lol of course Czarist Russia was capitalist and imperialist, but after the Russian revolution and the formation of the Soviet Union I think it would be more than misleading to call Russia/Soviet Union “capitalist.”
Just because there is a socialist revolution, does not mean that the bourgeoisie and remnants of capitalism just are wiped away like with the brush of a stroke.
The dictatorship of the proletariat has to be installed to suppress bourgeoisie/capitalist counter revolution.
According to Stalin/Lenin there has to be an entire historical epoch of socialism to transition society into communism.
Sire_26: It was state capitalist.
Anon #4: Czarist Russia was more of a mix a capitalism and feudalism than actual capitalism
Anon #3: Czarist Russia represented all of the ills of rising imperialism.
Sire_26: Internally, it was never socialist to begin with. From the infrastructure of the Bolshevik Party, to the later formation of the USSR. Vladimir Lenin advocated for and acknowledged this (including state capitalism). The problem is that because of things like democratic centralism and the overall adherence to orthodox Marxist principles, the conditions were set for the totalitarian state to come to fruition under Stalin, and ultimately, as Trotsky predicted, for the USSR to collapse.
If you read Lenin, you’ll see exactly what I’m referring to.
Anon #2: I find this very interesting lol
Sire_26: Lenin not only acknowledged, but desired & promoted the State Capitalist nature of the Soviet Union, & this can be seen through his intra-party debates & private letters.
See here: http://libcom.org/library/what-was-ussr-aufheben
See here: http://libcom.org/library/the-bolsheviks-and-workers-control-solidarity-group
Please read: http://libcom.org/files/Maurice%20Brinton-%20The%20Bolsheviks%20and%20workers'%20control.pdf
The Bolsheviks inherited an economy that was underdeveloped (coming from feudalism). Lenin’s solution was “State Capitalism,” which would allow the economy to develop. This required capitalist policy, but with specific sectors of the economy controlled by the state.
Lenin rationalized this approach with Marxist theory, pulling on the idea of capitalist development being necessary before Socialism can truly succeed. [Marx actually rejected stagism at the end of his life, for the record.]
Lenin also believed that a socialist revolution in Germany would provide the developing Soviet economy with resources and support.
Regardless of what his intentions were, what Lenin and his party advocated for in a move towards Socialism set the conditions for the catastrophes that would later transpire, and U.S. government propaganda will continue to cite this in arguing that “Socialism” should be avoided.
We mustn’t fetishize the leaders of the past, or be apologists for the errors in their rationales. We must learn from the mistakes in their methods in an effort to develop realistic approaches that stay true to the socialistic principles we all claim to embody.
This is not a discussion about Lenin’s “intent,” but rather what did and did not exist in the USSR.
Please see here:
Marx and Lenin's views contrasted | By Richard Montague https://www.worldsocialism.org/spgb/socialist-standard/2000s/2001/no-1169-december-2001/marx-and-lenins-views-contrasted … via @OfficialSPGB
Please scroll down to number five (“Current Tasks of the Trade Unions”) to see where Lenin makes a demand for “one-man” management:
“On the Question of the Trade Unions and their Organization” | From the 9th Congress of the Bolshevik Party (1 April 1920) https://www.marxists.org/history/ussgovernment/party-congress/9th/01.htm
Lenin in 1919 demanding one-man management:
“Introduction of One-Man Management in Lieu of Board Management in Centrotextil: Draft Decision for the Council of People’s Commissars” | By Vladimir Lenin https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1919/sep/04.htm
Given the circumstances, one could find many arguments for why a “one-man management” policy (amongst other things) could’ve theoretically worked for the time, but policies like this were inherently antithetical to socialist principles, and set the stage for later catastrophe.
Anon #3: https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1924/foundations-leninism/
Sire_26: Obviously they tried it. It wasn’t what feudal Russia was. But this doesn’t mean that it was actually socialist or communist. So many of Lenin’s positions were completely antithetical to Marxist principles, and many self-identifying Marxist-Leninists excuse this by saying those who take issue are “utopian,” when really it’s just Marxism. It’s actually not that complicated.
Some Marxist-Leninists acknowledge this, but most don’t.
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This is one of those topics where, if you haven’t read deep into the history, or read Marx or Lenin or Trotsky or Stalin (and I mean actually read them, or at the very least thorough summaries of their positions), then we’re just going to keep talking in circles.
The crux of the conversation is State Capitalism vs. Socialism. A Communist State vs. a Communist Society (as outlined by Marx). You can call any of it whatever you want (the semantics aren’t what’s important here); what matters is that we understand the characteristics of each potential existence and/or theory, as well as what really happened in the past.
This is why we have to be vigilant in combating dogmatism. It tries to shortcut digging into the reality of the history, and this is dangerous, because – as the cliche goes – those who fail to understand history are doomed to repeat it.
“Scientific Socialism” as an idea and concept is what we should be collectively adhering to; not the philosophy of only one person or revolutionary leader, but dialectics (the science).
I highly recommend Anton Pannekoek’s writing on State Capitalism:
Anton Pannekoek - State Capitalism and Dictatorship https://www.marxists.org/archive/pannekoe/1936/dictatorship.htm
This is one of those difficult things, because many of our Black revolutionaries of the past identified with Marxism-Leninism and Maoism. But, again, if you read Fred Hampton’s speeches, he talked about the dialectics – the objective reality of our situation. The reality of our situation now is not the same as what it was in 1969 America, or 1917 Russia. Malcolm X also spoke about this in “The Ballot or the Bullet” too. We can’t look at their words in a static way and try to format them to now; it won’t work.
Lenin and Trotsky’s methods may have held more weight in the past (on paper), and strictly in a theoretical sense for their time (and there’s a lot to learn from their strategy when it comes to direct action and propaganda campaigns), but we’re dealing with a different situation/reality right now, and we need REAL socialism. We need REAL communism (as outlined by Marx).
We don’t need centralized power and more* state capitalism. Our state is already working off of fiat currency. We have already accumulated enough wealth ... for shit to change on a widespread level under socialist representation. We just need to break through the liberal and conservative propaganda, as well as the voter suppression.
In 1969, when Hampton was advocating for the collectivization of arms and weaponry in Cook County, there may* have been more weight and logic to that strategy. In 2018, where the military power of the state is even wider and enforced, this approach is not only not logical; it’s not possible (at the degree to which he spoke of). It just isn’t.
We have to be looking at how poor and working-class people are to actually take control of the state apparatus, as well as the private sector (this means in the workplace). This requires a certain degree of gradualism (please read Luxemburg for more on this, though).
Anon #5: I think looking at one as impossible and the other as possible through gradualism is a mistake. The only thing that any of us agree on is the idea that that revolution, through ballot or bullet, is going to be unfathomably difficult.
Sire_26: Looking at what as impossible?
Anon #5: Collectivization of arms and weaponry. If the idea of a gradual victory is possible in your mind for taking control of state apparatus, there has to be room in your mind for the other option. Dismissing either entirely is a mistake.
Anon #6: It's a false dichotomy to my mind.
Sire_26: Did you listen to Malcolm X’s “The Ballot or the Bullet”? Genuinely asking (not being insincere). The entire point X was making is that despite the fact that every revolution throughout history has been bloody, we’re in a unique position here in America. Even though we don’t have a true “democracy,” we still have democratic processes in front of us that we need to take advantage of as Black American people.
If you’re entertaining the idea of insurrection (that is, an armed uprising against the state) in 2018, then you’re simply not thinking about the practical points of such an effort.
We need to be on the road to real revolution; not destabilization. We are stabilized, despite the fact that we’re ideologically fragmented and have institutions rotted to the core by capitalism. We are stabilized compared to many war-torn countries around this world.
Inviting insurrectionist planning is not rational for more reasons than I could list in this group chat. If you’d like to speak with some socialist combat veterans I know about this topic, I can put you in touch.
Anon #6: Gradualism isn't a rejection of the revolutionary option, just the understanding that it has to be put off, and that survival has to take priority.
Sire_26: And yes, that is a false dichotomy that was just created.
Exactly.
Anon #5: Sire_26 and I aren't talking about the same thing when we say the words "revolutionary option."
Sire_26, I feel like you're narrowing what I'm saying in a way I'm not doing to you x_x if you were to tell me we're going to be able to vote in/write into law socialism "in 2018", I'd say it isn't possible. As far as insurrection goes, it wouldn't be possible in 2018 either.
Neither are. Both are huge projects that would take years to get anywhere.
[And] btw yes, I did listen to Malcolm X's ballot or bullet. Just so happens that the guy advocates for black capitalism a lot in order to take better control of black communities. There's a lot to be said for historical context, and that thing you mentioned earlier about taking some things to heart, while leaving other things in the past.
Anon #3: I wouldn’t say Malcolm advocated capitalism, but rather black self determination.
Sire_26: Exactly. Malcolm X was anti-capitalism (there are quotes from him on this).
@[Anon #5], you’re kind of creating false dichotomies in your responses, and begging the question (a logical fallacy). We’re not talking about anything happening right this second. We’re talking about quite the opposite; gradualism.
There’s a stark difference between revolutionary changes to systems and a coup.
You’re entertaining the idea of a coup being a viable option in America. I’m saying it’s not an option right now, while many insurrectionists would insist on the contrary.
Anon #5: I'm not talking about a coup, personally. Coup implies like, "kill the president, and senators/legislators, take power from above" which isn't my point. It wasn't Fred Hampton's point, either, when he was advocating for collectivization of arms and weaponry. At the time, it was about defense. Defense of community, protecting self determination, that sort of thing.
Listen, this topic is complex and i'd rather talk about it than go point by point in writing, which i feel would take a long while. Plus, to be honest, reading back i feel like i kind of derailed the original point.
Conversations about amassing weapons vs. "how to revolution" are definitely not the same thing.
Anon #7: This topic is gonna properly get fleshed out on here.
Sire_26: I’m with you on the point about Fred Hampton (although it’s debatable), but even with the size of the police state now, “defense” has to take on an entirely different meaning when it comes to us protecting ourselves. I think we should be advocating for that on an individual/personal level, ya dig? But I’m not an idiot. I see what the BIE classification does. We saw what COINTELPRO did. We know the state has even more power now.
A coup is much more complicated, but it is violent uprising. Insurrection. Armed struggle. These are all aimed to achieve successful coups, or control of the state apparatus. When many use the word “revolution,” that is what they’re associating with it (in a practical sense). I’m saying the dynamics have changed; gradual revolution is real, but this does not mean we should be limiting ourselves – rather, reading the climate and accelerating the process whenever we can.
Again, this is “The Ballot or the Bullet” conversation.
We can def explore this via phone or Discord or whatever at another time. It’s an important conversation to have.
Sorry for the massive walls of text lmfao we might as well share these conversations at some point, they’re so long.
I would definitely say for everyone (myself included) that we all gotta sit with perspectives sometimes instead of jumping to respond so quickly. What’s most important is not winning a debate or argument or making someone think like you do, but rather figuring out what the truth (not “your” or “my” truth, but the objective* truth) is, and making the truth known.
Anon #5: yeah, agreed.
Sire_26: 💯💯💯
Anon #5: i don't mind walls XD i do a lot of reading in my free time
Sire_26: Ayyyeee you’re like me then lol I don’t mind either.
Quick correction, by the way. I had a typo in one of my earlier messages lol
“Internally, it was never socialist to begin with. From the infrastructure of the Bolshevik Party, to the later formation of the USSR. Vladimir Lenin advocated for and acknowledged* this (including state capitalism). The problem is that because of things like democratic CENTRALISM and the overall adherence to orthodox Marxist principles, the conditions were set for the totalitarian state to come to fruition under Stalin.”
HUGE typo/mistake lol
Here’s what I was referring to:
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic_centralism
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Anon #5: That does make more sense in context Democratic centralism sounds hugely problematic x_x
Sire_26: Very very. Actually read Lenin’s views on it, though. And peep what he did to the unions – 110% not true to Marxist ideology whatsoever (that’s why some people say Marxism-Leninism is an oxymoron).
Again, though, and this is the nuance – THEORETICALLY his method could’ve* made sense FOR THE TIME. That does NOT mean that it 1) applies today or 2) is actually Marxism/Socialism.
https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1919/sep/04.htm
https://www.marxists.org/history/ussgovernment/party-congress/9th/01.htm
Anon #2: Can you explain the term Marxist-Leninism is they have conflicting views?
Sire_26: That’s a dense one, Tommy. If you hit the http://Marxists.org or @libcomorg primers on Marxism and Leninism separately, though (hell, even the Wikipedias), you’ll be able to start forming your own views on Marxist-Leninism. You cannot just take my word for it.
Lenin based his theories and strategies on the works of Marx, however in his practice (actions), he advocated for policies that were directly antithetical to Marx’s outlining of real* socialism. Does that make sense? Now for you or anyone else to see how that is, you have to really* dig into the history, as well as his writings. I’ve shared some good sources on it right now, but there’s much more to it all.
Anon #5: what about the idea of marxism that places the material realities of each circumstance within the context of relations of capital? I.E. We need to go from feudalism to capitalism, so we'll do state capitalism until we can get to socialism, because Lenin recognized that trying to jump from feudalism to socialism was unrealistic and wouldn't have functioned.
There was a bourgeoise consolidation of power, sure, but it might still be marxism in the context of trying to eventually get to socialism...?
Sire_26: Absolutely. If you see the string of tweets I shared earlier in our convo, this is me speaking to this as briefly as I can. [Marx rejected stagism towards the end of his life, so according to the logic of the "Marxist" dogmatist, this wouldn't be "Marxism."]
Also, please see Anton Pannekoek’s brief essay on this.
When we use the word “Marxism,” we’re talking about adhering [to] or working through Marxist theory. Someone can claim to be a Marxist, but we have to be looking at whether or not they’re being true to the theory in practice.
State Capitalism as a concept is not something limited to states like the USSR or PRC.
America is theoretically State Capitalist. It’s a shining example of State Capitalism. We just make the distinction with the USSR and PRC because under the guise of a “worker’s state,” there is really just a bloated bureaucracy of bourgeois who are enforcing capitalist principles (there’s still wage labor, etc etc etc – it’s not Socialism as explained by Marx – you can call it whatever you want, but it isn’t Socialism).
Lenin was an orthodox Marxist, which is why he used this argument you just outlined to advocate for rapid industrialization and the “holding pattern” until revolution took place elsewhere. But because of this, some people feel he was an opportunist (they’re pairing this approach with the fact that he advocated for highly centralized authoritarian state policies, and never enacted truly socialist policy internally from his position of power).
Check the sources out and keep reading if you can! We’ll be here all night if y’all are just going off of my word lol you have to verify everything I’m saying for yourselves in order to challenge it and/or reach your own conclusions.
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Anon #3: I think while discussing Marxism/Leninism we shouldn’t recognize that Lenin applied Marxism to Russia’s specific conditions. Nobody even thought that Russia would be the country where revolution would occur, they thought the countries that were most industrialized with the largest proletariat (i.e Germany) would break the chain of capitalism.
But as I stated before, socialism represents an entire epoch of history, so to say that a state is not socialist because it has remnants of capitalism, aka wage labor, I think is false. Lenin and Stalin admit that for a period of time the Bourgeoisie is still more powerful than the proletariat. That’s why the state and dictatorship of the proletariat is so important, to suppress the bourgeoisie. Socialism is complex and looks different in different countries because of differ condition.
Cuba still has wage labor, but are we saying that Cuba isn’t socialist because of it?
Anon #5: whether or not we call countries "in the process of socialism" may or may not depend on whether or not we think those in power are currently sincere about attempting to move towards socialism, which is more belief based than anything else, even when we do have actions to point to that signify one way or the other.
Anon #3: A period of time after revolution the bourgeoisie is more powerful than the proletariat*
Sire_26: [Anon #3,] I addressed what you said in your first paragraph in my response earlier in this discussion, as well as tweets sent out a bit ago.
Cuba isn’t socialist. Maybe it is closer to real socialism than America, but it isn’t socialist. This isn’t even really something to debate. It’s a fact, if you call yourself a Marxist or at least go by Marxist theory. Whether you agree with Marxist theory or not is up to you.
There are no real examples of socialism that we can look back to within the last century (on a national level – we have tiny pockets of it in places like Spain, but again, not what Marx was talking about to scale). It just hasn’t existed yet.
Just because a state has parts of it that are socialist ... doesn’t mean that they have reached a truly socialist society, nor does it mean those in power actually intend on getting everyone to a socialist society (as [Anon #5] is hitting on right now).
Again, this comes right back to Marx. I’m not saying you all should read all 800+ page volumes of Das Kapital or something, but we have to have a grip on what he was talking about before we speak on Lenin. That’s the only way you get to see what’s true and what’s false. I study the economists and professors who have read Das Kapital front to back MULTIPLE times (personally); of course I read Marx excerpts and analyses myself as well. You have to at least try at some point to dig into this stuff, or else it’s just rhetoric and not facts.
"Critique of Gotha Program" is considered a “required reading” amongst hard left elitists lol I’m not gonna go that far with it, but I will say that it’s a great place to start.
We can speculate all day long about what all of these revolutionaries actually intended; the facts are the facts, though. We can see what did and did not happen. What has and has not happened. We can look at our challenges and the reality, and try to come up with realistic approaches that help us reach ... a communist society.
Anon #3: Bruh, Cuba is socialist lol I’ve been to Cuba, I’ve been to international conferences there, I’ve spoken to people. Ive been to lectures in Cuba BY Cubans about the economy, politics, etc.
Again, socialism is a PROCESS not a conclusion. To imply that Cuba isn’t socialist ludicrous to me.
Also, Cuba bring a socialist state 90 miles away from the the imperialist beast needs to be taken into context. To me, to imply that Cuba isn’t socialist is an ultra leftist argument. If it’s not socialist, then what is it?
You keep saying “reached true socialist society” implies that socialism is a process.
Sire_26: You could literally apply that same logic to America, and then argue that it is socialist, but to a lesser degree. Cuba is closer to true socialism as defined by Marx, but it just isn’t true socialism. I honestly don’t know what else to say. I’ve been as clear as I can be.
Is there no longer wage labor there? Do workers control the means of production there? If the answer to both of those questions is “no,” then it isn’t socialism as Marx explained it.
https://www.marxists.org/history/erol/1960-1970/cuba.htm
https://www.reddit.com/socialism/comments/5v2n6t/is_cubas_economy_one_of_state_capitalism/
I definitely get where you’re coming from. You can call it whatever else you want and try to defend it and say it’s good, but it isn’t an example of a socialist territory on planet earth.
“It's in an awkward transitional phase between a state-driven socialism and state capitalism. There are already petite bourgeoisie in Cuba, such as taxi company owners, who make over $1,000 USD a month which is absolutely massive in Cuban terms where the average monthly salary is $25. There are still strong socialist and Marxist currents in the Cuban Communist Party, but Cuba has hinted towards a Chinese model of state capitalism with Raul frequently praising China. Like some social scientists on Cuba have commented, I suspect Cuba migrating fully to state capitalism to motivate the lifting of the embargo in exchange for American investments. The country is still very laudable and pretty pro-proletarian, but I don't think this will last.”
That’s the top comment in the thread I linked to. Explains it very simply and clearly.
I think places like Cuba need to be supported, of course. But we need real socialism. [People, not "places," need to be supported.]
Sire_26: And “state-driven socialism,” as that person put it, just means the state apparatus is being used to push for socialist programs or socioeconomic policy, but it’s not actually socialist in its structure because the workers don’t control the means of production lol
Anon #3: The reason that cab drivers make so much is because they have access to American dollars and tourism.
Sire_26: I gotta bounce for the day. I’ve said all I possibly can on this topic for now. I hope y’all get a chance to check out the resources and get back to me.
Anon #3: I think that we can critique any society, and Cuba isn’t exempt from this, but to say that Cuba ISN’T socialist is again, ultra leftist, and a bit misleading to me.
Also, ask the Cubans about their revolution and is their country socialist, and how they view themselves. They will tell you otherwise, despite what an online forum says.
The strides that the Cuban revolution made in nationalization of industry, land reform, social justice, economic justice, giving workers power, internationalism, etc etc speaks to their socialist revolution, despite how much we intellectualize it.
Sire_26: You’re saying a lot of things, but the key is in defining what “Socialist” is. Calling me or anyone else an “ultra leftist” for adhering to Marxist theory and over a century’s worth of development on this doesn’t speak to the root of the conversation.
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Anon #3: Cuba did this in the face of constant imperialist aggression, sanctions, military aggression, etc etc etc, so to denounce them as not socialist because they don’t meet all of Karl Marx qualifications seems dogmatic and doesn’t take into account Cuba’s specific conditions. Not to mention Karl Marx was philosophizing about European society.
Sire_26: You’re acting like I’m coming at Cuba! I’m not trying to take away from their achievements. We’re talking about what is and isn’t socialism. If you want to take the word “socialism” and turn it into something else, then by all means go ahead. Marx isn’t god. He codified a foundation for socialism that Castro and countless others stated they wanted to stay true to. That’s the reality. So the convo is about whether they’ve stayed true to it or not. It’s really that simple.
Anon #8: socialism isn't defined by how much imperialist agression a country goes through
Anon #1: Word. Cant blame the USSR for being antagonized by America for an entire century. Who knows what might have manifested had that not happened.
Cant blame Cuba for Batista.
These are their material conditions.
Anon #3: But these are theoretical definitions, we’re talking about the struggle for socialism AGAINST imperialism and capitalism and their material conditions. I think it’s a lot more nuanced than some definition on paper, and as binary as “this is socialism, this is not.”
Anon #1: I agree. Its bigger than labels at the end of the day. Its war over resources.
Anon #3: Also, we should beware of the people/sources we read when it comes to socialism/communism or whatever. A lot of academics just intellectualize phenomena from the ivory towers of academia, and not even revolutionaries or involved in struggle.
They come a dime a dozen lol
Sire_26: But you’re talking as if we don’t have the written texts and communications of the actual revolutionaries, though. Their views and their experiences. We have all of it, so what are you really trying to say?
That’s a logical fallacy to start making generalizations about where potential* or perceived* sources of information are coming from instead of delving into what we’re actually speaking about. I perceive that as a diversion from the real crux of the conversation, which is actually defining “socialism.”
What you’re doing is revisionism, and the “ultraleft” argument is literally rhetoric. Let’s talk about the theory and the history here.
If you want to discredit Marx and go at Marx, then go at Marx, but that means you also have to reconsider your thoughts on what the actual revolutionaries claim, because all of them (for the most part) claimed to abide by Marx (as do most of the people here in this group chat). Fidel Castro is not exempt from this. That means his base and foundation was Marxism.
You have yet to address the points about socialism. You’ve just reiterated the sentiment that socialism is a “process” and that “ultra leftists” say that Cuba isn’t socialism; and you keep bringing up the challenges Cuba faced as if to imply that I think, because they haven’t achieved real socialism yet, the validity of their gains should come into question. I repeat: these are all logical fallacies.
I implore all who haven’t already done so to check out this guide to logical fallacies, so that you’re more familiarized with how they’re used to “win” arguments in the court of public opinion: https://yourlogicalfallacyis.com/
There’s more in-depth Wikipedia articles and YouTube videos on logical fallacies that we can find as well. Understanding these can help everyone in conversing constructively with others here.
Everything is a process. No one put anything into “binaries” by stating that Cuba isn’t socialist. It’s just assessing the conditions and seeing whether they, on a very fundamental level, fit the definition of socialism.
We have to know where we’re going and what it looks like in order to carve out the right path; this is the fundamental reality of the situation. We are assessing the reality of the situation.
Saying that Cuba isn’t a socialist country says nothing about whether or not they’re on the right path, or if the intentions of their leaders are in the right place. It’s just saying that they aren’t socialist.
Again, just because there are socialist institutions* and programs* in a country doesn’t make the country as a whole socialist. Because there is wage labor in Cuba, and because the government (state) – not the workers – control the means of production directly, it is state capitalism. It is not real socialism. This is something Lenin wrote and gave speeches about. This is something Trotsky wrote and gave speeches about.
The irony of the situation is – just as Trotsky predicted would happen with the USSR – Cuba is becoming more and more capitalist by the year, and it’s all connected to the nature of state capitalism.
Cuba identifies as a “Unitary Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic.” Of course, if you refuse to challenge that notion on any level, then you’re not going to find any value in this discussion in the first place, except in reaffirming what you already believe to be true. The base assumption of this dialogue is that you’re open to the other perspective; I’m doing my best to try and present that to you from a variety of sources here.
I seriously implore all of you to check out the Reddit threads I linked to in here, or Google search “Is Cuba Socialist? Reddit” and read all of these threads of people arguing about exactly this (for years). It goes on and on and on. I’ve read these discussions. I’ve studied the revolutionaries. I’ve moved through identifying with Marxism-Leninism, and then through identifying with Trotskyism, and on and on; to come to the understanding that I have now. It only came from educating myself and reading others’ countless arguments online, and studying the history from a variety of perspectives, constantly challenging what I knew to be true. This is dialectical materialism; not confirmation bias.
This is why I recommended Reddit to everyone the other day; if you want to visit this conversation with more people and debate it out, then feel free to head on over to /Socialism, and you’ll see the same exact arguments I’m raising brought up there, but probably without* sources. It’s a better forum than a Twitter group chat. Perhaps we could have these kinds of discussions on there; everyone can introduce conversation topics, and we can all comment in threads along with sources to our arguments.
I’ve at least tried to give you sources and proof for all of my claims. It’s all there in the writing; from http://Marxists.org to LibCom. At some point, we get to a place where we’re not addressing the core arguments anymore, and instead we’re resorting to ad hominem labeling, and begging the question.
If you keep reading, you will find the truth. The exploration can’t stop here in this group chat. We have to go on and keep learning. If scholars and people who have actually studied all of this stuff for longer than we’ve been alive and who can explain all of their views to you STILL can’t convince you off of verbal communication alone, then clearly there’s a misunderstanding on someone’s part.
For anyone who doesn’t believe me, here’s a Wikipedia page on the politics of Fidel Castro: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Fidel_Castro
Here’s a Jacobin article on Cuba and Socialism and where they are headed: https://www.jacobinmag.com/2016/10/alternative-cuba-socialism-left-opposition-worker-control/
Please excuse any typos.
Anon #3: You’re giving us jacobin and wiki articles about Cuba. I’ve read the history of Cuba, I’ve read Marx, I’ve been to Cuba and got educated by the Cubans on their political process and conditions. I can assure you that actually going to a country and seeing/studying things for yourself is more insightful than online discussion boards and articles from outsiders. I retain that you can criticize Cuba, but to say it ain’t socialist is wild. But as I stated before, Marx was philosophizing about Europe, not an island slave colony, so to say it’s not socialist cuz it doesn’t adhere to all of MARX’s credentials is a stretch. Gotta strongly disagree here.
Anon #1: This is good.
Hash it out.
Anon #5: Honestly, the more i think about the question "is cuba socialist?", the more i wonder what the value of the answer is. The answer definitely isn't the determining question of whether or not we're going to support the state as socialists. I don't think it's socialist per marx, for reasons that go from restaurants and taxis to reactions to capitalist embargoes. But, as a leftist, i'm definitely going to support their state and endeavors to move further left. I think dividing it in yes/no answers is reductive of a frankly complicated question.
Anon #1: As a human, i am proud of the legacy of both the ussr and cuba
Anon #8: i don't think one party states are compatible with any democratic notion of socialism. that's the main flaw of 20th century socialism.
Anon #9: [Twitter user was a philosophy professor who said something along the lines of, "You're being condescending, and telling people 'You're wrong because you haven't seen things as I have.' Also, you're making baseless statements, claiming that people are using logical fallacies when it's just your opinion." The Twitter user deleted their account, and so the record of their responses is no longer with us - this is a rough recall of what they stated, and is more likely than not partially inaccurate.]
Sire_26: Am I really saying “as I have”? And a logical fallacy is a logical fallacy. It’s a matter of fact; not opinion. My statements aren’t baseless. They’re right here for everyone to read and judge for themselves.
And I also second what [Anon #8] and [Anon #5] are saying.
Anon #1: also, through which institution would workers own resources if not the state or some form of state?
Sire_26: My biggest point is that there is no way this exchange alone is going to end with us agreeing on this. All I ask is that there are facts and sources brought behind your arguments that everyone here can also explore. And everyone should actually be exploring these sources before responding.
Anon #9: [Twitter user then said something along the lines of, "I'm a philosophy professor, bro; I teach people about logical fallacies for a living. I think I'd know what I'm talking about on this one lol"]
Anon #3: lol ^ honestly bro
Sire_26: You literally just used one: https://yourlogicalfallacyis.com/appeal-to-authority.
I’m not trying to be disrespectful or discredit; I’m just about getting to the crux of an actual argument.
Anon #9: [Twitter user said something along the lines of, "LOL damn, you got it, you got it. I think I'm just gonna leave y'all to it then lol"]
Anon #8: the thing is workers don't control the cuban state. if they did then fine. i mean some anarchists don't want a state at all, but even by the classical marxist definition of socialism which Cuba claims a lineage to there is inconsistency.
And it's not just about definitions but if cuba is a capitalist state it changes our entire analysis. if there is resistance to the cuban state we need not to get into the stale "anti imperialist" analysis of it must be a cia plot
Anon #3: Workers control the state in Cuba.
Anon #1: Sounds socialist
...
Sire_26: Juridically, and on the surface, yes. But what about the bureaucracy that Trotsky spoke about? The bureaucracy that forms around that state apparatus? What of wage labor? What of the distribution of wealth? These are things you’re not addressing.
It’s like saying that America is a democracy. Juridically, yes. But there is that reality of capitalism that constantly encroaches upon and corrupts the legal processes we establish.
Everything you’re saying is argued against in that Anton Pannekoek article I linked to in here twice. Please, feel free to read it and respond to all of his points. He’s written extensively on this (in the early 20th century, mind you). That would be way more productive than us going back and forth here.
I challenge you to it. You can craft a Reddit post on it, and we can all respond in the comments. If you’re open to that.
Anon #3: I have addressed them. The first thing Cuba did when competing the revolution was land redistribution to the peasants, expropriated housed, land, property, nationalized industry. Free education, free health care, 95% of Cubans own their home, etc
I don’t have that much of an interest in proving if Cuba is actually a socialist state lol
Sire_26: Alright, cool.
Anon #10: Just read that whole argument. Lol
Sire_26: Hit dem links tho, fam. Dig into it! Let us know your thoughts.
submitted by Sire_26 to BlackSocialists [link] [comments]

[Informational] [CC0] Lightening Blockchain Load

Lightning Network

The Lightning Network is a concept proposed by developers Thaddeus Dryja and Joseph Poon to create a network of trust-less payment channels on top of the Bitcoin Blockchain. The goal of this network is to allow for instantaneously secure Bitcoin payments of any amount, no matter how small.

Motivation

The Scalability Problem

From the earliest days of Bitcoin, critics took issue with its scalability characteristics. The very first response to Satoshi Nakamoto's described design was a total rejection of the system as being unable to deal with the enormous capacity demands of the world's economy. This message was the first, but far from the last time the scalability of Bitcoin would be called into question.
The reason for this skepticism is that in computer science, there are well understood system designs and algorithm designs, with vastly different costs. For example when a design calls for searching through a group of words, an adjustment to make the words alphabetically ordered can produce a potentially billion times faster solution. Simply by using a strategy of checking in exponentially reducing half sections, the search is executed at an exponentially reduced cost. The Blockchain is an example of a system in which growth of use does not just grow cost linearly, but instead at an exponentially increasing rate.
The reason for this inefficiency is that when the Blockchain adds a new member who needs to send payments, the new member incurs a cost on all the other members who have a need to fully validate payments. All fully validating members of the Blockchain must sync and validate everything all other members produce. From the perspective of the total system, this means that the total system cost is increasing as a power of two, the polar opposite outcome of what a more ideally scalable and efficient algorithm would yield.

Scalability Solutions

Satoshi Nakamoto realized this deficiency in his original proposal, and came up with a proposed solution. His idea was to reduce the operative mode of validation to be scoped to a user, for users who had less need to validate. Since additional members only incurred costs on validating members, skipping validation from some clients would mean that the impact of adding members was more limited, to be borne only by those who wished to dependably receive payments, such as merchants.
This method he named Simplified Payments Verification or SPV, and his original outlined plan would present a less secure but still acceptable model for normal consumers because there would be an alerting mechanism for rule breaches that would signify the system was compromised, proactively preventing attacks on consensus rules.
Although long promised, the demands of Bitcoin Core's development meant that Satoshi was never able to deliver on his promised SPV-mode client. Over time others took his ideas and appropriated the SPV name in making their own similar, but not quite equal solutions. Due to wide differences of opinion in the correct methods and workability of SPV mode, a reference project was never created and the alerting system was never crafted. Nevertheless as a working solution many people adopted lower security but more user friendly and less operationally costly wallets, in many varied configurations.
Eventually the efficiencies of SPV came to be seen as only a temporary optimization of the Blockchain design. Instead of solving the exponential cost of the Blockchain system, SPV clients could only slow the cost increases. The lack of an alerting system and other faults of SPV meant that anyone receiving payments could not rely on it, muting the model's positive impact on the total system scalability cost. SPV's dependency on miner validation made miner centralization concerns more pronounced.
The validation cost burden on merchants and on the overall system began to have secondary negative effects, such as contributing directly to mining centralization by giving outsize advantages to miners with economies of scale. The high cost of a full node contributed to merchant validation centralization by creating an increasingly high cost to validate payments. Many efforts were made to optimize against these increasing costs, but the fundamental design of the Blockchain meant that an increasing tide of transactions would one day overwhelm any possible optimization that did not address the basic peer broadcasting design.

The End of SPV

Another marked failing of SPV clients proved to be that they could never successfully be secured against financial privacy leakage. This represented a threat to users' personal privacy and even to the overall utility of the currency where all equal denomination coins, no matter their origin, should have close to an equal value.
SPV clients were also seen as unsustainable in a decentralized configuration: since they cannot sync with each other they must make increasing demands on the limited and increasingly costly altruism of the node operators.
SPV could also not provide a solution to another much lamented Blockchain problem: the limitations preventing micro-payments. Early on in Bitcoin's life, to fight floods of small transactions that were called penny-flooding, Satoshi had instituted barriers against very small payments: payments smaller than a tenth of a bitcoin were blocked.
Satoshi also created a prioritization system to improve the Blockchain's reliability for high value payments, a marketplace for transactions in every block, with space being prioritized to the highest value transactions as indicated by fees. This further pushed out very small payments, Satoshi often had to regretfully inform people that micro-payments were not feasible.
In the early years of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto and the other developers faced many and varied pressing immediate practical operational concerns and development realities of simply keeping the Blockchain reliable, durable and secure. Early plans for scalability and support for broad use-cases gave way to what was seen as the most important use-case: high value transactions with a high level of security and durability against network attack.
Over time the system's long-term scalability, various lower priority use cases, and difficult to implement features like instant settlement were all pushed to be developed outside of the Blockchain on a different layer, called Layer 2. Layer 2 systems would still empower transactions denominated in Bitcoin units and be ultimately settled against the Blockchain, but also be able to avoid offering the same guarantees and functionality as the Blockchain, in order to serve a broader range of use cases.
The Lightning Network is an example of a Layer 2 service: a network service that seeks to provide instant settlement, tiny micro-payments, improved privacy, in a system that is fundamentally built on the Blockchain but also logically separated.

Achieving Lightning

Lightning's solutions are based on a common and long running proposal for how to use the Blockchain to provide for instantly secure and arbitrarily small transactions: payment channels. Payment channels have existed for many years, in both well established theory and as real libraries and projects.
Payment channels are a method of using smart contracts to rapidly trade Bitcoin between two parties, without requiring the Blockchain for more than occasional settlement. The parties create a shared starting balance on the Blockchain and then using signed but un-broadcast transactions rapidly, cheaply, and privately update the balance between them.
Because the funds are locked in a multiple signature smart contract, cooperation with the channel partner is required to spend the funds, however a payment channel smart contract also specifies a timeout that acts an escape if there is a failure of cooperation. There are multiple ways to form these channels, but they all offer the same advantages: instant transactions, arbitrarily small denomination payments, low fees, and transaction privacy, although only between two joined together parties.
The key innovation in Lightning is to take these joined pairs and link them together in a network: pairs passing along funds to each other in a chain until they reach their destinations. This combines the Blockchain's benefit of sending to arbitrary users with all payment channel benefits like instantly secure transactions.

Opening Payment Channels

To open channels in Lightning, a Bitcoin transaction smart contract is published with rules for how deposited funds may be spent. The rules of the transaction essentially specify that funds deposited cannot be spent unless both parties agree, with the exception that one party can unilaterally refund his deposited funds to himself if he is willing to wait for a time delay before re-spending them.
The transaction establishing these rules is called a commitment transaction and a transaction that adds funds into this channel is called a funding transaction. For efficiency, when initiating the channel for the first time both transactions may be folded together into a single Blockchain transaction.
There are two proposed methods for accomplishing Lightning's channel timeout requirement. The first mechanism uses a feature called CLTV that first added to Bitcoin in the soft forking Bitcoin Core version 0.11.2, released in November of 2015. This feature allowed for time-locking funds against a certain date, meaning that channel partners could create fixed future time timeouts for their channels. Using this feature would mean that channels be routinely re-created to bump the timeout window forward.
Another method was also proposed, using a time-locking feature called CSV that was first added to Bitcoin in the soft forking Bitcoin Core version 0.12.1, released in April of 2016. CSV allowed for specifying relative time locking contracts, meaning that channel partners could instead choose their timeout relative to when they executed their channel escape clause, allowing for channels that could remain open indefinitely. Because of this improvement, CSV timeouts were selected as the standard for Lightning payment channels.

Instant Settlement

Lightning payment channels work pretty much like normal payment channels, they pass signed transactions between two parties to update their balance. There is however one unique aspect that allows for routing: a third party involved in a Lightning balance update transaction called an R value. This R value, which is simply a lumping together of information about the movement of funds, allows a transaction between parties to be routable. R values represent hash-able information that can be used as Blockchain presentable proof that funds have been moved across the Lightning Network.
To understand how the R value allows moving money through the interaction of third party Lightning Network actors, it's important to understand that when spending funds on the Blockchain it is not actually the people who authorize funds. Instead it is only their private keys' signatures that authorize spending, all Blockchain funds are actually locked in contracts that have various rules about how they may be unlocked, the most common being that a singular private key may be used to unlock them.
Because Blockchain contracts simply deal in signatures and are scriptable, it is possible to create a type of transaction that is keyed against a signatory who actually knows nothing about the transaction and simply testifies to a system state in a signed way. For example, a server that produced cryptographically signed statements about the weather could be used in a transaction between two parties to be the arbiter of the execution of a weather based funds transfer, without any direct involvement of the server in the transaction itself.
This type of transaction is rare, and it was banned as part of a blanket banning effort by Gavin Andresen and Jeff Garzik who objected to general purpose smart contracts on the Blockchain and promoted the idea of a white listing system called standard transactions. In February of 2014, the release of Bitcoin version 0.10.0 mostly lifted this restriction, allowing more novel transaction types. Included in the allowed transaction types were those keyed off of an arbitrary non participatory signature, called hash locked transactions.
In February of 2016, Sean Bowe and Pieter Wuille published a work in progress version of a special transaction type that could include a time locked transaction with a hash unlock code. This specific type of transaction, called a Hash Time Locked Contract or HTLC, enables the state changes within Lightning Network channels.
Lightning Network clients negotiate with the network to send out a transaction to be routed across the network, yielding an updated set of finalized settlement data which represents the settlement update hash lock solution, the R value. This R value is only represented to the Blockchain as an opaque signature, and it could signify any successful routing, including passing of value from the Bitcoin Blockchain to another Blockchain, like the Bitcoin Testnet.
This type of settlement transaction is very powerful, it can be used to create a wide variety of transactions, like multi-signature transactions within the Lightning Network, or even probabilistic settlements within the Lightning Network. A novel payment type called Pre-Image Length Probabilistic Payment, or PILPP has been proposed as a way to send payments on the Lightning Network that are actually provably probabilistic, meaning it is possible to send someone a one bitcoin with a fifty percent chance of arrival. Using this payment type, it is theorized that services could even charge sub-Satoshi fees for their services by asking customers for probabilistic payments of a single Satoshi.

Settlement Security

The Lightning Network offers a particularly private solution to executing a transaction, called onion routing, in a method similar to the online privacy system Tor, also known as The Onion Router. The way that Lightning Network transactions are executed, each client considers the destination for funds and then decides on a linked series of pairs to execute the transfer. The client then wraps the pair series information in an encrypted format so that each pair jump is only given information on a need-to-know basis. The intermediary relays are not given information about any of the other pairs, including the final destination of the transfer they are assisting.
To avoid a situation where pairs fail to execute their fund passing duty, routed payments are given a TTL, or a time to live, meaning that the payments are no longer valid after a certain point. This allows automatic retrying of payments that fail to route successfully due to a third party fund transfer failure. Transactions can also use fees to incentivize pairs to successfully pass funds in a timely manner; pairs that fail to route may bear an opportunity cost.

In Breach of Contract

From the Blockchain's perspective, Lightning Network funds are just funds deposited in a two of two signature multi-signature wallet. As the balance of funds changes within a channel, the settlement is actually done through a transaction that may be broadcast at any time to the Blockchain to settle funds back to each party.
With potentially thousands of balance state change transactions, the balance within the channel is intended to go up and down over time. This presents a major problem for payment channels: what happens if the other party broadcasts an obsolete state of the balance of payment to the network that ignores a recent payment, and therefore steals funds?
This situation in which there is a breach of the basic channel contract where an out of date state is broadcast can only be solved by correcting the Blockchain record in response, meaning the stored funds must be monitored for breaches. In the Lightning Network the solution to this issue is to preemptively prepare a special type of transaction called a breach remedy transaction that prevents the invalid old state from being used to steal funds.
A breach remedy transaction goes beyond reclaiming the injured party's funds. To discourage theft, the transaction also takes the entirety of the offending party's funds as a penalty. For this reason it is recommended that a channel never be allowed to empty, that some funds to take in penalty always remain, to avoid a situation called an exhausted channel.
Breach remedy transactions are formed as a part of every update to the balance of payments in a Lightning Network channel, in a flow called the Revocable Sequence Maturity Contract or RSMC. The RSMC flow is done without requiring trust in the other party, generating and exchanging the guarantees against betrayal before completing the funds state update.
Breach remedy transactions are fully formed, fully signed, and they may even be safely published to third parties with rewards for the first publisher attached, to incentivize many eyes watching for and preventing a breach of contract.

Closing Time

Sometimes channel participants may wish to close their channels, for regular channel rebalancing or just to make a Blockchain payment. Lightning Network transactions that settle back to the Blockchain are called exercise settlement transactions, and they are simply standard co-signed transactions. Funds are sent as in any standard multi-signature transaction and the channel is considered closed. This happens instantly, as long as the channel partner is cooperative.
In the event that a channel partner is unavailable to close the channel, another option is possible, which is to exercise the CSV clause specified in the channel opening contract. This clause says that any party may unilaterally close the channel and reclaim their funds, provided that they wait for a timeout period to spend their funds again freely.
This timeout period is called a dispute period, because it gives the channel partner a chance to dispute the channel close in the case of a breach of contract, when the channel is closed with an out of date balance of payments.

Potential Issues

There are a number of challenges inherent in the Lightning Network concept. In the most marked change from the Blockchain, Lightning flips the configuration of the network from a single shared Blockchain ledger to a wide array of individualized Lightning client ledgers. Users holding Lightning Network funds are holding funds that are just as good as Bitcoin, but the funds are actually signed claims on funds.
In the Blockchain a global ledger state is synced between everyone and a user must only save their private keys to retain control of their funds. In Lightning, securely holding both the key data and individualized ledger data is the responsibility of the client. One solution to this issue is to use the saved keys to securely encrypt the state data and then save the encrypted data to a networked backup.
Another departure from the Bitcoin network model that requires careful consideration is that Lightning transactions do not need to be broadcast to every member by relaying others transactions. Given a more limited number of transactions that are sent, this reveals more information as to the identity of the sender. To solve this, Tor channels could be used to obscure IP information from channel partners, but a more comprehensive and as yet undefined solution may be needed to help obscure other correlation efforts.
Funds in Lightning also work differently from Bitcoin funds. The Lightning channels lock the funds to an agreement with a Lightning relay, in which a set of cooperative rules are agreed upon to enable the Lightning protocol. But in the case of a cooperation failure, which can simply mean the connected Lightning relay suffering downtime, user funds will be locked from use for up to the preset lock time, which could be up to a week. To deal with this, it's suggested that the risk of locking be spread over multiple channels, or that a user be encouraged to limit their use of Lightning to smaller amounts of spending money. Spending down entire channels is also not an efficient use of Lightning, so that reinforces the idea of users separating their funds into spending money in Lightning channels and savings in traditional Bitcoin wallets.
Another tricky issue with Lightning funds is that a channel partner may try to steal funds from the channel. Wallets must either be semi-regularly online to prevent that, or third parties must be available who can be relied upon to prevent theft. Theoretically, miners could also execute a theft directly, by gaining majority control of the network for the dispute period and blocking any breach remedy transactions from occurring, although some of the standard guards against miners taking that action would still apply, such as their general block reward incentives. This means that Lightning benefits from a decentralized set of miners and a set of users who are able to access the Blockchain cheaply to respond to breaches of channel contracts.
There are actually two configuration types of Lightning, similar to how there are two common types of Bitcoin clients: light Lightning clients who only spend money occasionally, and full Lightning nodes who act as relays and comprise the body of the Lightning network. There is a benefit associated with running a Lightning relay: as transactions are passed through a relay, they carry a reward of small market-based fees. But there is also a potential cost with running a Lightning relay, these relays are software that must have the agency to move funds between their channels. Relays need to have some automated access to user funds, to complete the signatures needed for channel transaction routing. It is recommended that relay operators be sure to secure their systems from unauthorized access to protect the capital required to operate a relaying node. Lighter Lightning clients do not share this issue, by only connecting occasionally they may secure their funds in colder storage and through multi-signature setups, as is the standard for secure Bitcoin storage.

Links

submitted by pb1x to writingforbitcoin [link] [comments]

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